**SPEED**

**MAX BARREL SPEED**

**The Science Behind It:** The maximum speed of the bat’s barrel during your swing. Measured the point 20% from the tip of the bat.

**What It Means For Coaches:** Faster barrel speed leads to harder hit balls with higher exit velocities, which increases the chance the ball results in a hit.

**DK Pro Tip:**
Max Barrel Speed directly correlates with the SwingTracker’s Impact Momentum metric. Hitters will see high Impact Momentum scores, assuming the same barrel speed is maintained at contact, with a heavier bat as with a lighter bat.

**SPEED EFFICIENCY**

**The Science Behind It:** Speed Efficiency measures the exact percentage of Max Barrel Speed that occurs at the moment of impact.

**What It Means For Hitters:** Ideally, the barrel of the bat will be moving at its maximum speed – 100% Speed Efficiency – when contact is made to maximize exit velocity and ball flight distance. Even a small drop in Speed Efficiency can have a large effect on batted ball outcome.

**What It Means For Coaches:** According to Diamond Kinetics’ Technical Advisor Dr. Alan Nathan, “bat speed is roughly six times more important to batted ball exit velocity than the incoming pitch velocity.” With this in mind, it is key to have maximum barrel speed occur at contact to maximize your Speed Efficiency and chance for a hard-hit balls with higher exit velocities

**DK Pro Tip:**
According to Diamond Kinetics Technical Advisor Dr. Alan Nathan, “bat speed is roughly six times more important to batted ball exit velocity than the incoming velocity.” With this in mind, it is key to have maximum barrel speed occur at contact to maximize your Speed Efficiency and chance for a hard-hit balls with higher exit velocities.

**MAX HAND SPEED**

**The Science Behind It:** The maximum speed of your hands during the swing.

**What It Means For Hitters:** Faster hand speed and faster bat rotation leads to faster barrel speed, which positively affects exit velocity and ball flight.

**What It Means For Coaches:** Faster hand speed will allow hitters to get the bat into the hitting zone sooner, which is especially helpful when facing higher pitching velocities. It is important to note, however, that if a bat is too heavy for the hitter, hand speed could potentially decrease.

**DK Pro Tip:**
Max Hand Speed correlates with SwingTracker’s Trigger To Impact metrics as they both emphasize having excellent quickness and timing in the swing. Quickness and Timing are necessary to make consistent, solid contact with the ball.

**POWER**

**APPLIED POWER**

**The Science Behind It:** The amount of power – measured in watts – that is applied to the bat during the swing by the hands and body.

**What It Means For Hitters:** Higher Applied Power causes the bat to reach a higher momentum more quickly which allows for the batter to hit the ball further. Additionally, more Applied Power allows the hitter to start the swing later, which gives the hitter more time to make swing decisions. This is especially important when facing pitchers with higher pitch velocities.

**What It Means For Coaches:** Since the distance a ball travels after contact depends on barrel speed at impact and the weight of the bat, more Applied Power during the swing means that it takes the batter less time to reach their Max Barrel Speed.

Furthermore, more Applied Power means the batter is transferring more energy from his body to the bat, and then to the ball. This will result in more bat speed and ultimately more power.

**Real World Similarity** Cars with higher powered engines go from 0-60 MPH faster than cars with lower powered engines. A batter that generates more Applied Power during a swing would have a “higher powered swing engine”, allowing the bat to reach a higher swing speed more quickly.

**DK Pro Tip:**
Hitters can improve their Applied Power by moving the lower body in sequence with the upper body

**MAX ACCELERATION**

**The Science Behind It:** Maximum Acceleration captures how quickly a batter speeds up their swing from the start until impact and correlates directly with the force and torque applied to the bat.

**What It Means For Hitters:** Higher Max Acceleration allows hitters to start the swing later – allowing more time to make swing decisions – but still produce a high rate of bat speed and momentum.

**What It Means For Coaches:** By applying more force and torque (higher Max Acceleration), hitters can get their bat up to speed more quickly, giving the hitter more time to make swing decisions.

**Real World Similarity** When two cars accelerate from 0 to 60 MPH, the car with the highest acceleration gets to 60 MPH more quickly. A hitter with a higher acceleration rate from the start of the swing to contact can wait longer to identify a pitch, allowing more time to make swing decisions.

**DK Pro Tip:**
Higher Max Acceleration will allow a hitter to get their bat up to speed more quickly, generating more exit velocity after squaring up a ball. A bat that is too heavy could negatively impact the Max Acceleration of a swing.

**IMPACT MOMENTUM**

**The Science Behind It:** Impact Momentum is the amount of momentum in the bat when contact is made. Impact Momentum is determined by barrel speed at contact, and the weight of the bat.

**What It Means For Hitters:** The higher the Impact Momentum, the further the ball will travel after contact.

For every additional +1 of Impact Momentum, the batter increases exit velocity by + ~1.5 mph. For balls with a HR trajectory, every + ~1.5 mph of exit velo = + ~10 feet of carry.

With this in mind, the difference between an Impact Momentum score of 24 and one of 25 is + ~1.5 mph of exit velocity and + ~10 feet of carry for a home run trajectory fly ball.

**What It Means For Coaches:** This measure is the one most closely associated with the power of the hitter. This is because higher momentum directly relates to further hit balls.

**Real World Similarity** If a sports car and a dump truck are both moving at 60 MPH, the dump truck – the heavier object – has more momentum than the sports car. If two hitters have the same swing speed, the hitter with the heavier weighted bat would have more momentum and be able to hit the ball further.

**DK Pro Tip:**
A heavier bat can lead to higher momentum, exit velocity, and distance on the ball, but the bat should not be heavy enough that the hitter loses significant barrel speed.

**QUICKNESS**

**TRIGGER TO IMPACT**

**The Science Behind It:** Trigger to Impact is the amount of time – in milliseconds – elapsed from the start of the hitter’s forward bat motion and contact. SwingTracker measures Trigger To Impact from the instant the hitter begins accelerating toward the ball until the moment of contact.

**What It Means For Hitters:** A lower Trigger to Impact Time results in more quickness. Trigger to Impact is directly related to a hitter’s timing. According to Dr. Alan Nathan,“to get the highest home run probability requires swinging with a larger attack angle, keeping in mind that you will fail often if the swing is mis-timed.“

**What It Means For Coaches:** Improving Trigger To Impact Time Will:

- Give the hitter more time to make swing decisions

- Help the hitter determine pitch location

- Help the hitter time and make contact with higher velocities, as well as give hitters = more time to make adjustments mid-swing

**Real World Similarity** This is the amount of time it would take a car to get from its starting point to its end point. Here, the end point is the moment contact is made.

**DK Pro Tip:**
A bat that is too heavy can slow down Trigger to Impact Time, which will negatively affect the swing.

**DK Pro Tip:**
Max Hand Speed correlates with SwingTracker’s Trigger To Impact metrics as they both emphasize having excellent quickness and timing in the swing. Quickness and Timing are necessary to make consistent, solid contact with the ball.